what is subroutine?
Subroutines are the basic computer science methodology to divide tasks into subtasks.


sub version {
print “version of pl file.”;

It can be call by name without braces, but make sure subroutine defined before we use them



sub mysub {
print “mysub is called”;

# Following error comes if sub routine is called without braces

# Unquoted string “mysub” may clash with future reserved word at line 4.
# Useless use of a constant (mysub) in void context at line 4.

Parameters & Arguments

@_ is the list of incoming parameters to a sub.
$_ is known as the “default input and pattern matching space

sub mysub {
foreach(@_) {
print $_;


By default (implicitly) last statement of sub routine returns
Programmer must write return statement to return explicitly from sub routine.

Sub routine prototype 

Prototypes let you declare subroutines to take arguments just like many of the built-ins, that is, with certain constraints on the number and types of arguments. We call them “prototypes”, but they work more like automatic templates for the calling context than like what C or Java programmers would think of as prototypes. With these templates, Perl will automatically add implicit backslashes, or calls to scalar, or whatever else it takes to get things to show up in a way that matches the template


sub sum_of_two_squares($$)  {

my ($a, $b) = (shift, shift);

return $a**2 + $b**2;


sum_of_two_squares(1,2);      # No run-time error

sum_of_two_squares(1,2,3);  # ERROR


Declared as Called as
sub mylink ($$) mylink $old, $new
sub myreverse (@) myreverse $a,$b,$c
sub myjoin ($@) myjoin ":",$a,$b,$c
sub mypop (\@) mypop @array
sub mysplice (\@$$@) mysplice @array,@array,0,@pushme



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